A dental sealant (also called a pit and fissure sealant) is a plastic, professionally-applied material that is placed on the chewing surfaces of 3104069the back teeth (molars and some premolars) to prevent cavities. Sealants can provide a physical barrier so that cavity-causing bacteria cannot invade the pits and fissures on the chewing surfaces of teeth.

When are sealants placed?
We at Smiles & Sonrisas recommend that sealants should be placed when the first permanent molars erupt into the mouth at about age 6. Placing sealants on these teeth shortly after they erupt protects them from developing cavities in areas of the teeth where food and bacteria collect. When sealants were applied routinely to susceptible tooth surfaces in conjunction with the appropriate use of fluoride, most tooth decay in children can be prevented.

Second permanent molars erupt into the mouth at about age 12 years. Pit and fissure surfaces of these teeth are as susceptible to dental caries as the first permanent molars of younger children. Therefore, young teens need to receive dental sealants shortly after the eruption of their second permanent molars.

Who is a candidate for sealants?
The potential to develop pit and fissure decay begins early in life, so children and teenagers are obvious candidates. But some adults at high risk of decay can benefit from sealants as well.

What else can I use to prevent tooth decay?
Fluorides, such as those used in community water, toothpaste, gels, varnishes, and mouth rinse also help to prevent decay. Fluoride works best on the smooth surfaces of teeth. The chewing surfaces on the back teeth, however, have tiny grooves where decay often begins. Sealants keep cavity-causing bacteria out of the grooves by covering them with a safe plastic coating. Sealants and fluorides work together to prevent tooth decay.


Every day, minerals are lost from and added to a tooth's enamel layer through two processes, demineralization and remineralization. Minerals are lost (demineralization) from a tooth's enamel layer when acids attack the enamel. These acids are formed from plaque, bacteria, and sugars in the mouth from food and debris left behind after a meal. Minerals such as fluoride, calcium, and phosphate are redeposited (remineralization) to the enamel layer from the foods and water consumed. Too much demineralization without enough remineralization to repair the enamel layer leads to tooth decay.

Why does fluoride help prevent tooth decay?
Fluoride helps prevent tooth decay by making the tooth more resistant to acid attacks from plaque, bacteria, and sugars in the mouth as well as reverses early decay. In children under six years of age, fluoride becomes incorporated into the development of permanent teeth, making it difficult for acids to demineralize the teeth. Fluoride also helps speed remineralization as well as disrupts acid production in already erupted teeth of both children and adults.

Where is fluoride found?
Fluoride is found in many different foods and in the water and can also be directly applied to the teeth through fluoridated toothpaste and mouth rinses. Mouth rinses containing fluoride in lower strengths are available over-the-counter; stronger concentrations require a prescription.

Is there fluoride in bottled water?
Bottled water, for the most part, does NOT contain fluoride. Please read the labels carefully. Dannon water does have a product line containing the same parts per million (ppm) of fluoride as regular tap water and they bottle it in a snack pack size for easy use in your or your child's lunch box.

When is the appropriate timing for fluoride treatments?
Fluoride is important for infants and children between the ages of 6 months and 16 years. During this time, the primary and permanent teeth erupt in the mouth. Adults can also benefit from fluoride. New research indicates that topical fluoride, from toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoride treatments, are as important in fighting tooth decay as in strengthening developing teeth.

Who can benefit from regular fluoride treatments?
Adults with certain conditions may be at increased risk of tooth decay and would, therefore, benefit from additional fluoride treatment. They include:
• Dry mouth conditions, such as Sjogren's Syndrome and Diabetes.
• Medications, such as antihistamines, anxiolytics, and high blood pressure medications.
• Head and neck radiation - patients become more susceptible to cavities due to lack of saliva.
• Gum disease (Gingivitis or Periodontitis) can expose the roots of your teeth
• History of frequent cavities.
• Crowns, bridges, or braces.

Is fluoride safe?
Fluoride is safe and effective when used as directed but can be hazardous at high doses (the "toxic" dosage level varies based on an individual's weight). For this reason, it is important for parents to carefully supervise their children's use of fluoride-containing products and to keep fluoride products out of reach of children, especially children under the age of 6.

Is too much fluoride dangerous?
Excess fluoride can cause defects in the tooth's enamel that range from barely noticeable white specks or streaks to cosmetically objectionable brown discoloration. These defects are known as fluorosis and occur when the teeth are forming -- usually in children under 6 years. Fluorosis, when it occurs, is usually associated with naturally occurring fluoride, such as that found in well water. If you use well water and are uncertain about the mineral (especially fluoride) content, a water sample should be tested. Keep in mind, however, that it's very difficult to reach hazardous levels given the low levels of fluoride in home-based fluoride-containing products. Although tooth staining from fluorosis cannot be removed with normal hygiene, we may be able to lighten or remove these stains with professional-strength abrasives, whitening products, a combination, or possibly other cosmetic procedures.